[1]沈旸,周小棣,常军富.明代夯土长城的城墙材料与构造——以大同镇段为例[J].东南大学学报(自然科学版),2014,44(1):205-210.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1001-0505.2014.01.037]
 Shen Yang,Zhou Xiaodi,Chang Junfu.Materials and structures of rammed earth walls of Ming great wall—with Datong town section as example[J].Journal of Southeast University (Natural Science Edition),2014,44(1):205-210.[doi:10.3969/j.issn.1001-0505.2014.01.037]
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明代夯土长城的城墙材料与构造——以大同镇段为例()
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《东南大学学报(自然科学版)》[ISSN:1001-0505/CN:32-1178/N]

卷:
44
期数:
2014年第1期
页码:
205-210
栏目:
建筑学
出版日期:
2014-01-18

文章信息/Info

Title:
Materials and structures of rammed earth walls of Ming great wall—with Datong town section as example
作者:
沈旸周小棣常军富
东南大学建筑学院, 南京 210096
Author(s):
Shen Yang Zhou Xiaodi Chang Junfu
School of Architecture, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
关键词:
明大同镇 夯土长城 明长城 城墙材料 构造
Keywords:
Datong town of Ming dynasty rammed earth great wall Ming great wall architectural material structure
分类号:
TU098
DOI:
10.3969/j.issn.1001-0505.2014.01.037
摘要:
为了深入了解夯土长城的材料和构造特征,在对现存明大同镇段长城这一典型夯土长城遗存进行实地考察的基础上,借鉴土力学的相关理论和方法,对城墙夯土材料的种类和存在方式进行了分类统计,并从基础做法、夯层厚度、夯层构造和铺设植物枝条做法等方面分析了城墙的构造特征,揭示出夯土长城在材料和构造方面的丰富性以及与环境的密切相关性.结果表明,明大同镇段夯土长城的城墙高度一般为6~10 m,墙面斜度一般为70°~80°,夯层厚度多为150~250 mm,夯土材料由细粒土、砂砾、碎石、块石和植物枝条组成,夯土材料中砂砾、碎石和块石的含量与地形和土壤环境有密切关系,证明取材方式为就近取土,夯层中砂砾、碎石和块石或铺砌或掺杂的多种构造方式反映了古人基于当地土质和实践经验对夯层构造的改良,少数案例显示了夯土中可能铺设了植物枝条作为连接筋,反映了古人的夯土技术成就.
Abstract:
As the typical rammed earth Great Wall remains, the Ming great wall of Datong town was taken as an example for better understanding the material and structural characteristics of rammed earth walls. On the basis of field work, the theory and methods of soil mechanics was used for reference to finish the classified statistics of types and existing methods of rammed earth materials. Structural characteristics of the rammed earth walls were analyzed from aspects of foundation, rammed layer thickness, rammed layer structure and laying twigs, which revealed that the varied materials and internal structures of the rammed earth Great Wall were closely related with the environment. The results show that the Ming Great Wall of Datong Town is generally of a height of 6 to 10 m, with a slope of 70° to 80°, and the rammed layer thickness of 150 to 250 mm. The materials of rammed earth walls consist of fine-grained soil, gravel, crushed stone, block stone and twigs. The content of gravel, crushed stone and block stone is closely related with the soil environments and terrain, which proves that the materials were drawn from nearby. Various rammed layer structures of the soil with paving or doped gravel, crushed stone and block stone reflect that the ancients improved the structures based on practical experience and soil environment. The phenomenon of laid twigs used as the connecting tendons was shown in several cases, which reflects the technological achievements made by the ancients on rammed earth.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期: 2013-06-11.
作者简介: 沈旸(1978—),男,博士,讲师, dm0702@126.com.
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(51308100)、高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金资助项目(20120092120004).
引用本文: 沈旸,周小棣,常军富.明代夯土长城的城墙材料与构造——以大同镇段为例[J].东南大学学报:自然科学版,2014,44(1):205-210. [doi:10.3969/j.issn.1001-0505.2014.01.037]
更新日期/Last Update: 2014-01-20